Many people consider the working of a speaker as a complicated process but in reality, the working of the speaker is quite simple, and it requires few parts to create sound. Speakers come in different shape, design and size and each and every model is based on the same principle which is converting electrical energy into mechanical energy. It enables the user to listen to music, film or hear a voice over the phone.
Speaker comes with an electromagnet which acts as a translator to convert the electric signal gained by the device to a crystal clear sound. Basically, the electromagnet is a metal coil that gives rise to a magnetic field so that the electric current can flow that field. This electromagnet comes in the form a metal lead, and they are uniquely attached to the circuit so that there is directly flowing of current from the primary power source. The magnet reverses the flow of current in the coil, and the mechanical energy converts the motion into sound.
In general case, the speaker needs one cone, electromagnet, and a permanent magnet to create sound. The permanent magnet is placed in front of the electromagnet, but the position of the former is static while the latter opts for a dynamic position. When you switch on the power of the speaker, the electric pulse passes through the electromagnet, and this gives rise to a change in the direction of the magnetic field. This phenomenon denotes that the wave is first attracted to the permanent magnet and then got repelled from it thus causing a to and fro vibration.
So the cone attached to the electromagnet get affected by the vibration, and due to this vibration, it creates sound. The cone is a generally made up of plastic or high-quality paper which notch up the vibrating and propagates the sound wave into the open air. However, the pitch of the sound entirely depends upon the frequency of the vibration and the amplitude determines the volume. Different speakers have a different setup, but everyone follows the same process of sound generation as we described. Nowadays some brands are using modern engineering to update the sound generation process so that it can offer better reproduction at every range.
The change in volume is an entirely different scenario and the volume of the speaker changes according to the intensity of electric pulse. More prominent electrical pulse pushes the diaphragm to opt for extended to and fro motion which in turn give rise to loud sound. So when you set the volume to low, it receives small electric pulses thus barring the diaphragm from moving further. Similarly, the frequency of the speaker is also determined by the movement of the diaphragm. So when the diaphragm moves in faster motion, it leads to the generation of high-frequency sounds (high pitch). However, currently, some models use special transducer along vibrating crystal to create high-frequency music. Likewise, when the cone moves in slow motion, then it establishes a low-frequency sound.
However not all speaker can offer superior audio quality and it varies from brand to brand as well as model to model. To be able to provide optimum quality, the speaker should reproduce all the frequency of the sound recording accurately without causing amplification or degradation. A lot of factors come into play in addition to the frequency response, and it comprises a dispersion of the sound wave and the quantity of distortion. Along with quality, the frequency response also plays a crucial role in deciding the output volume of the speaker. According to experts the ideal frequency of a speaker should be linear so that the listener gets a proper music experience.
How To Make A Speaker: A DIY Method
When we are discussing a speaker, you must have thought of how a speaker is created, aren’t you? Well, the making seems complicated in the first place, but once you go through our simple process, it will change your notion about the making process. You just need some simple material, and you are ready to make your first DIY speaker. So before starting with the process, let’s first look at the components you will need to accomplish your final goal.
• A power neodymium magnet.
• Cardboard for making the base.
• A spring with good length.
• A good quantity of copper wire (preferable 26 gauge).
• Some wires or 3.5mm cable for hooking the speaker with a music source.
• Tape and clips.
• A plastic cup.
• Pliers and scissors.
After you arrange all the above components, you are ready to start with the process;
• At first, we need to we should separate different parts of the speaker as it will ease up the process. There are four main parts of a speaker which includes the diaphragm, input, speaker coil, and magnet.
• After separating them, we have to make the coil of the speaker which serves as the central part. To begin with, you need to cut two pieces of paper in a rectangle shape with a 2inch breadth and 6inch length. Now take one paper and place the cylindrical magnet over it. After setting it, roll it properly and apply the tape so that it gets a proper cylindrical shape. Then fold the second paper over the new paper roll and tape it accurately so that it is free of lump.
• Now take the long copper wire and start wrapping the cylindrical role with the cable. You should leave some space at both the end so try to pack the middle portion with even wraps. You should coil the wire for 80 times, and the wrapping should be done tightly. Then apply glue or tape as it will prevent the coil from opening up. After wrapping you should leave some wires at both ends as you will need it for connection.
• Now, the tricky part where you will have to pull out the inner paper cover from magnet but without damaging the top paper cover. You need to use pliers to take the paper roll. Similarity after taking inward paper roll, you also need to take out half of the top paper roll. Then take the top roll and cut four lines with even spacing and attach tape of those lines.
• In this step, you will have to take the plastic cup and attach the cylindrical magnet roll on the rear side of the cup. To connect it you will have to use the vertical paper lines of the speaker coil, and you can even use glue in addition to tape to make the attachment firm. Allow it dry up for some and then cut a circle in the base of the cup. You shouldn’t completely cut the bottom and leave some space for example 3cm. Similarly, you also need to cut another ring out of the cup’s base but this time a ring measuring only 1cm in width and not more than that.
• Once you are done with the previous, now you need to make a circular cut on the tape so that you can put it at the bottom of the cup. It should be slightly more significant than the diameter of the hole, and you should put the tap from the inside of the container. It should be placed in such a way that the adhesive portion should be facing the outer section.
• After preparing the diaphragm, it is time to start the making of the magnet and to do that you first need a paper clip. You will have to straighten the clip and then roll one end of the clip, so it gets a form of a spiral. After making a few rolls and you should check whether the spiral part reaches the top portion of the coil or not when it is attached to the cup. If it attaches, then you connect the top of the spiral on the magnet and then slowly insert that magnet into the speaker coil.
• Now attach the open end of the clip to the lower section of the cup, and you can either use glue or tape to join it. While connecting it, you also need to connect the coil to the lower section of the cup, and you won’t need anything as you will have an open adhesive side to join it.
• In the final step, you will have to use the 3.5mm connector section of a headphone, and you need to cut the part with at least 5inch wire. So after cutting the cord from the middle, you will have to uncover the inner cables by opening the outer cover. Probably you will find three cables inside it. Avoiding the ground, you will have to attach the other two cable with wires coming to the speaker coil (the loose ends that we kept in the beginning). You should use black tape or specialized clip to connect all the attachments properly.
• Finally, you are ready to play the speaker, and you just have to hook your phone or any music source to play music. You might get a low volume, but you will be a ready groove on your DIY speaker.
Main Parts Of a Speaker
A speaker’s working process is simple but it to accomplish the audio output, it utilizes different parts. All the elements help each other in different ways, and the absence of any component will jeopardize the whole working process. So let’s take a look at the primary parts of a speaker;
• Diaphragm or Cone – The diaphragm is probably the most crucial part of a speaker, and it facilitates the origination of the sound. It moves to and fro due to vibration allowing the air to move which in turn create sound.
• Surround – A surround is a flexible ring that joins the basket with the diaphragm. Basically, it is a ring that bars the cone from moving in sidewise, and it works with the spider.
• Dust cup – It covers the midsection of the cone and protects the interior of the speaker from getting affected by debris or dust.
• Voice Coil – It is that primary component that moves the diaphragm in to and fro motion and its charge fiddle between positive and negative.
• Magnet – The magnet used in speakers are commonly neodymium, but nowadays many manufacturers use modern magnets. Generally, it is a stable magnetic field that facilitates the alternating magnetic force of the voice coil.
• Spider – A spider is a disc-shaped cloth that acts as a suspension to maintain tension on the voice but without disturbing its movement. It saves the lower section of the cone from moving in sidewise.
• Flex wire and other wires– These mediums allow the movement of electric pulses to the voice from the amplifier.
• Pole piece – It manages the magnetic field of the voice coil.
• Top plate – It is a magnetic conductive iron that keeps the magnetic field around the voice coil.
• Bottom Plate – The bottom plate is basically a holder that keeps the magnet and pole piece in one place.
• Former – It is that paper on which the coil is wrapped.
• Frame – The frame is a large metal basket that holds all the components together in the speaker box.
How To Make A Speaker Louder
Planning to enhance the volume range of your home speaker? But entirely clueless how will you do that? There are many ways to do that, and you have to try all of them to find out which way will fulfill your requirement;
• If you are using the speaker along with PC, then you can enhance the volume from inside. Go to playback device in your pc by clicking the sound button located on the right corner of the Window’s screen. Then go to the playback under the sound dialogue box. Then right click on the speaker and click the properties option. In the property section, you will find an enhancement option where you will have tick the loudness equalization box. This will give you an extended boost in the overall sound volume.
• Fiddle with the position of your speaker and try to place it in an open area so that it doesn’t get blocked by anything. It should be faced towards you so that you can enjoy the maximum volume. You can even try the corner loading method by placing it at the corner of your seating area.
• Try to seal the room with drapes or standard furnishing so that it can cut down the echoes. Open space or too many reflective spaces in your room will bar you from experience optimum sound volume. You can opt for adding items of irregular shapes in your room which will break the sound thus giving you a high volume.
• Adding a mini audio transformer to your existing speaker will not only notch up the volume of the speaker but also it’s bass. It might not rave-up the volume by a good margin, but it will provide a considerable increase in the volume.
• Replace the speaker wire with new and upgraded cables which will surely give a boost to the audio volume. When wires get old, it won’t offer you the required volume as well as quality. Apart from quality, you should check whether it is properly connected or not an as poor connection can dampen the sound volume.
• Add an amplifier with the speaker because sometimes even the best speaker models won’t give you the desired sound volume. There are many powerful amplifiers available in the market sotry to get the best-suited model. Before purchasing the check the power requirement of your speaker so that you don’t end up buying the wrong amplifier.
• A convenient way to amplify the volume of your speaker is by adding a subwoofer. A powerful subwoofer will do the trick as it can easily pour out the low-frequency samples from the speakers. So when you enhance the volume of lower frequencies, the volume will automatically increase. However, you should make sure that the power rating of your speaker should match that of the subwoofer; otherwise, you might not full output.
What is Speaker Sensitivity?
Well, the answer to the above question is not as simple as it seems because a lot of factors come into play and moreover it is self-explanatory. In simple terms, the sensitivity of a speaker depicts the connection between sound output and input power. However, you should remember that the sensitivity doesn’t determine the sound quality; instead, it defines the volume of the amplifier so that it can offer optimum output. You can even say it is a measurement which will tell how loud the speaker will be at a specific electric pulse or input.
Generally, the sensitivity of a speaker is depicted in decibels per watt per meter, but some manufacturer also illustrates the sensitivity only in decibels. So don’t get confused by the unit of the sensitivity. It is quite easy to measure the sensitivity of the speaker, and you just need a microphone or SPL meter to measure.
First, place the microphone in front of the sound panel but it should be 3-feet away from the speaker. It has been seen that the speaker at this distance it offers a sensitivity ranging between 80dB and 90dB. However, when you will place it 6ft away from the speaker, the range will go down to 73-83dB. This is because the decibel drops by 6 unit when the distance is doubled from the speaker.
Now you can understand the higher the sensitivity rating of the speaker, the louder will the sound the speaker at a given wattage. However, you should remember power requirements gets doubled with every increase in 3dB sensitivity. The sensitivity rating above 90dB is always considered as the optimum level as it offers the best sound output. However, the rating around 84-88dB is considered to be an average rating as it yields an excellent production. But one shouldn’t settle anything below 80dB depict the poor sensitivity hence poor output volume.
However, don’t get confused by the efficiency rating in the speaker as many people consider it to be the same as sensitivity. Even though efficiency and sensitivity have the same concept, but they are different and possess no actual relation. Actually, efficiency defines the amount of electrical power going into a speaker which is then converted to sound.
How To Test a 70 Volt Speaker System
There are many ways to test a 70-volt speaker system, but here we have mentioned an easy and efficient way to measure it. However, you can even measure it using impedance meter but it is a complicated process, and the cost of the impedance meter is quite high. So before we start with the process we need, an audio tone generator and digital multi-meter.
• First, you should connect the tone-generator (keeping 1 kHz tone) to the amplifier using AUX.
• Then turn down the amplifier’s volume to the lowest and switch-on tone generator.
• In this step, you have put DMM on AC volts and connect it to the amplifier’s 70V and common output terminal while the 70-volt speaker is connected.
• After everything is set, then rave-up the volume slowly and stop at that point where meter reads 23.3volt. However, avoid reaching 70volt in one go as it might disturb the ear veins.
• After reaching 23.3volt, switch off the amplifier.
• Then disconnect the 70V speaker lead and hook one line from DMM into the speaker lead. Consecutively hook the other line of the meter into the amplifier’s 70V terminal.
• Now again set the DMM to AC and then turn on the amplifier. However, you should wait at least 30 sec as it needs time to stabilize. After 30 sec you should read the amount of current.